The Digital Presence of Museums and the Implications for Collective Memory

Paper

Carla Everstijn, Kent State University, United States

This study examines the role cultural heritage professionals envision for their institutions’ digital presence, finding that far from being secondary to the physical institutions they represent, cultural heritage websites are experiences in and of themselves. Through digital-only resources and experiences, cultural heritage institutions are making possible a “visit” not replicable in the physical museum. Many galleries, libraries, archives, and museums are attempting to engage online visitors in a variety of ways, creating opportunities for user participation and personalization of their experience. In addition, because of their roles in managing, disseminating, and curating information, cultural heritage professionals are in the position through these online visits to influence the collective memory of society. What opportunities are cultural heritage professionals creating on these sites, and how are visitors engaging with them? This study presents the results of exploratory interviews with cultural heritage professionals about their expectations for user participation and how they envision their institutions’ digital presence. It includes a discussion of the implications for shaping the collective memory of society and directions for future research.

Bibliography:
References

Acott, T.G., LaTrobe, H.L., & S.H. Howard. (1998). “An evaluation of deep ecotourism and shallow ecotourism.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 6, 238-253.

Alelis, G., Bobrowicz, A., & C.S. Ang. (2015). “Comparison of engagement and emotional responses of older and younger adults interacting with 3D cultural heritage artefacts on personal devices.” Behaviour & Information Technology 34, 1064-1078.

Assmann, J. (1997). Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bailey-Ross, C., Gray, S., Ashby, J., Terras, M., Hudson-Smith, A., & C. Warwick. (2017). “Engaging the museum space: Mobilizing visitor engagement with digital content creation.” Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 32, 689-708.

Barbieri, L., Bruno, F., & M. Muzzupappa. (2017). “Virtual museum system evaluation through user studies.” Journal of Cultural Heritage 26, 101-108.

Cameron, F. (2003). “Digital futures I: Museum collections, digital technologies, and the cultural construction of knowledge.” Curator 46, 325-340.

Cameron, F., & S. Kenderdine. (Eds.). (2007). Theorizing digital cultural heritage: A critical discourse. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Chadwick, J.C., & P. Boverie. (1999). “A survey of characteristics and patterns of behavior in visitors to a museum web site.” Museums and the Web 1999: Proceedings. New Orleans: Archives and Museum Informatics, 1999. Last updated August 15, 2013. Consulted May 1, 2018. https://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw99/papers/chadwick/chadwick.html

D’Angelo, A.L. (2017). “Museums without walls: SmartHistory and the Google Art Project—A mission possible prophecy.” (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New York: Columbia University.

Dalbello, M. (2004). “Institutional shaping of cultural memory: Digital library as environment for textual transmission.” Library Quarterly 74, 265-298.

Darity, W. (Ed.). (2007). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA.

Falk, J.H., & L.D. Dierking. (2016). The museum experience revisited. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fantoni, S.F., Stein, R. & G. Bowman. (2012). “Exploring the relationship between visitor motivation and engagement in online museum audiences.” In J. Trant and D. Bearman (Eds.). Museums and the Web 2012: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Retrieved from http://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2012/papers/exploring_the_relationship_between_visitor_mot

Frommholz, I., Graves, D., Liu, H., Kumar, A., & G. Brady, G. (2014). “Great War stories told by the people – Crowdsourced cultural heritage in digital museums.” IEEE/ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 419-420.

Garcia-Madariaga, J., Virto, N.R., & F.B. Lopez. (2017). “The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions.” Esic Market Economics and Business Journal 48, 369-392.

Genoways, H. (Ed.). (2006). Museum philosophy for the twenty-first century. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Giaccardi, E. (Ed.). (2012). Heritage and social media: Understanding heritage in a participatory culture. New York, NY: Routledge.

Goldman, K.H., & D.T. Schaller. (2004). “Exploring motivational factors and visitor satisfaction in on-line museum visits.” Museums and the Web 2004: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives and Museum Informatics, 2004. Last updated October 28, 2010. Consulted May 1, 2018. https://www.museumsandtheweb.com/mw2004/papers/haleyGoldman/haleyGoldman.html

Graus, D., Odijk, D., & M. de Rijke. (2017). “The birth of collective memories: Analyzing emerging entities in text streams.” arXiv 1, 1-37.

Hafner, D., Rigsby, B., & A. Allen. (2007). “Museums and Memory as Agents of Social Change.” International Journal of the Humanities 5, 87-94.

Halbwachs, M. (1992). On collective memory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Hirst, W., Yamashiro, J.K., & A. Comin. (2018). “Collective memory from a psychological perspective.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22, 438-451. doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.010

Holtorf, C. (2011). “The changing contribution of cultural heritage to society.” Museum International 63, 8-16.

Jailani, A.K., Kusakabe, S., & K. Araki. (2015). “Adaptive context-awareness model for cultural heritage information based on user needs.” 2015 IIAI 4th International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics, 339-342. doi: 10.1109/IIAI-AAI.2015.287

Kelly, L. (2016). “The (post) digital museum visitor: What has (almost) twenty years of museum audience research revealed?” MW2016: Museums and the Web 2016. Los Angeles: Archives and Museum Informatics, 2016. Published February 16, 2016. Consulted May 1, 2018. https://mw2016.museumsandtheweb.com/paper/the-post-digital-visitor-what-has-almost-20-years-of-museum-audience-research-revealed/

King, L., Stark, J.F., & P. Cooke. (2016). “Experiencing the digital world: The cultural value of digital engagement with heritage.” Heritage & Society 9, 76-101.

Kravchyna, V., & S.K. Hastings. (2002). “Informational value of museum websites.” First Monday 7. Available at http://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/929. doi.org/10.5210/fm.v7i2.929

Latham, K. (2007). “The poetry of the museum.” Museums Management & Curatorship 22, 247-263.

Liew, C. L. (2006). “Online cultural heritage exhibitions: a survey of strategic issues.” Program 4, 372-388. doi: 10.1108/00330330610707944

Liew, C.L. (2015). “Collaborative construction of digital cultural heritage: A synthesis of research on online sociability determinants.” D-Lib Magazine 21. doi: 10.1045/november2015-liew

Margalit, A. (2004). The ethics of memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Marty, P.F. (2007). “Museum websites and museum visitors: Before and after the museum visit.” Museum Management & Curatorship 22, 337-360.

Marty, P.F. (2008). “Museum websites and museum visitors: Digital museum resources and their use.” Museum Management and Curatorship 23, 81-99.

Marty, P.F. (2011). “My lost museum: User expectations and motivations for creating personal digital collections on museum websites.” Library & Information Science Research 33, 211-219.

McKercher, B. (2002). “Towards a classification of cultural tourists.” International Journal of Tourism Research 4, 29-38.

McGee, C., & N. Harrower. (2017). “Inspiring Ireland: Building digital history, making shared memory.” Eire-Ireland 52, 303-320.

Mulholland, P., & T. Collins. (2002). “Using digital narratives to support the collaborative learning and exploration of cultural heritage.” Database and Expert Systems Applications, 2002: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, 527-531. doi:
10.1109/DEXA.2002/1045951

Olick, J. K., & J. Robbins. (1998). “Social memory studies: From collective memory to the historical sociology of mnemonic practices.” Annual Review of Sociology 24, 105–140.

Pallud, J. (2009). A user-centered perspective on information technologies in museums. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

Pallud, J., & D.W. Straub. (2014). “Effective website design for experience-influenced environments: The case of high culture museums.” Information & Management 51, 359–373.

Panciroli, C., Russo, V., & A. Macauda. (2017). “When technology meets art: Museum paths between real and virtual.” Proceedings 1, 1-14. doi: 10.3390/proceedings1090913.

Rizvic, S., Djapo, N., Alispahic, F., Hadzihalilovic, B, Cengic, F.F., Imamovic, A., Okanovic, V., & D. Boskovic. (2017). “Guidelines for interactive digital storytelling presentations of cultural heritage.” 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 253-259.

Rossington, M., & A. Whitehead. (2007). (Eds). Theories of memory: A reader. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rottenberg, B.L. (2002). “Museums, information and the public sphere.” Museum International 54, 21-28.

Simon, N. (2010). The participatory museum. Santa Cruz, CA: Museums 2.0.

Simon, N. (2016). The art of relevance. Santa Cruz, CA: Museums 2.0.

Skov, M. (2013). “Hobby-related information-seeking behaviour of highly dedicated online museum visitors.” Information Research 18, paper 597.
Smith, B. (2002). “Digital heritage and cultural content in Europe.” Museum International 54, 41-51.

Soren, B.J. (2005). “Best practices in creating quality online experiences for museum users.” Museum Management and Curatorship 20, 131-148. doi:10.1016/j.musmancur.2005.03.001

Stainforth, E. (2016a). Defining the problem of tomorrow’s memory: The time of cultural heritage in the digital age. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Stainforth, E. (2016b). “From museum to memory institution: the politics of European culture online.” Museum & Society 14, 323-337.

Sylaiou, S., Mania, K., Karoulis, A., & M. White. (2010). “Exploring the relationship between presence and enjoyment in a virtual museum.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 68, 243-253.

Szabo, V., Lacedelli, S.Z., & G. Pompanin. (2017). “From landscape to cities: A participatory approach to the creation of digital cultural heritage.” International Information & Library Review 49, 115-123. doi: 10.1080/10572317.2017.1314141

Vliet, H. V., & H. Hekman. (2012). “Enhancing user involvement with digital cultural heritage: The usage of social tagging and storytelling.” First Monday 17. doi: 10.5210/fm.v17i5.3922

Wang, Y., Stash, N., Sambeek, R., & Y. Schuurmans. (2009). “Cultivating personalized museum tours online and on-site.” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 34, 139-153.

Wertsch, J.V., & H.L. Roedinger III. (2008). “Collective memory: Conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches.” Memory 16, 318-326.

Worcman, K., & J. Garde-Hansen. (2016). Social memory technology: Theory, practice, action. New York: Routledge.

Wyman, B., Smith, S., Meyers, D., & M. Godfrey. (2011). “Digital storytelling in museums: Observations and best practices.” Curator 54, 461-468.

Zahidi, Z., Lim, Y.P., & P.C. Woods. (2014). “Understanding the user experience (UX) factors that influence user satisfaction in digital culture heritage online collections for non-expert users.” 2014 Science and Information Conference (SAI), 57-63. London: IEEE. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/SAI.2014.6918172